Oral surgery is a specialist branch of dental medicine comprising surgical procedures performed within the oral cavity. The most common surgical procedures include teeth extraction, apicoectomy and installation of implants.
Reasons for teeth extraction may vary. A common procedure is the surgical extraction of wisdom teeth. Wisdom teeth are the last teeth to grow and often lack space to do so. If they cause no problems, there is no need to extract them, but when they develop an inflammation of the surrounding tissue (pericoronitis), that is a valid indication for their extraction. Other reasons for teeth extraction may be orthodontics-based reasons, large cavities, major periapical processes and advanced periodontitis.
Apicoectomy is a minor surgical procedure performed to remove the tip of the tooth root. It is carried out, when regular endodontic therapy cannot remove pathogens causing the inflammation from the root canal, to seal it and thus prevent inflammation of the periapical area. The procedure is of short duration and rarely involves any complications.
Implantation is a completely pain-free surgical procedure that involves minor to no complications. Indication for implantation is the loss of a single or more teeth. The procedure itself involves a small cut performed on the gum, the implantation of a titanium screw acting as a replacement for the tooth root and, ultimately, suturing the wound. A few months later, an artificial crown is placed on the implant, acting as a substitute for the natural crown.